Monday, November 3, 2008
Agar, a valuable aromatic plant deposit found in the stems of Aquilaria agallocha is available in Bangladesh, East India (Assam) and other parts of South East Asia.
The oil obtained from agar is described as a stimulant, cardiac tonic and carminative. It is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Agarwood (Oud) is an Oriental medicine for use as a sedative.
In reality agarwood oil obtain from the fungus infected of Agarwood plant.
Friday, August 15, 2008
The highly aromatic wood of the sandalwood tree is widely used in South Asia for religious and medicinal purposes and it is a prime source of incense and perfumes. The small tree is native to East Asia but has been known in the sub-continent for millennia.
In antiquity the Indian sub-continent was known to be the source and exporter of mainly luxury goods such as gold, gems, spices, fine textiles, perfumes, sandalwood and ivory. The coastal route to the Persian Gulf was ancient and rice, sandalwood and peacocks were traded by 700 BC.
Sandalwood's name is derived from the Sanskrit chandana. It has always been valued for its fragrance and its resistance to insects and grew to be a vital accessory in Hindu rituals. Besides providing an oil celebrated in commerce, the wood is used for carving fine items such as figures and caskets, as well as images of deities and temple doors. It is also made into a paste which has universal application in Hindu practice. Orthodox Hindus frequently smear the paste in symbolic marks on their faces and bodies. The paste is also believed to have a cooling effect on the body. The paste, oil and wood have medicinal applications and the powdered wood is even used in antidotes to snakebites.
The scent lies in the heartwood of old trees from which sandalwood oil is extracted by distillation. The sandalwood tree used to flourish in southern India, particularly in the forests of Karnataka. Mysore sandalwood oil was renowned and considered superior to all other varieties. Illegal felling and poaching has placed the tree under extreme threat, and it is a variety found in Australia which is replacing the traditional Indian sandalwood in supplying the world's needs.
Related Link: Sandalwood Oil, Rose Oil, Agarwood Oil
Monday, August 11, 2008
Throughout history no flower has been so loved, or renowned as the rose. Rose is older than the human hands that first cared for it, drew pictures of it, and celebrated rose in music and lore. Forty million years ago, a rose left its imprint on a slate deposit at the Florissant Fossil Beds in Colorado, and fossils of roses from Oregon and Montana date back 35 million years, long before humans existed. Fossils have also been found in Germany and in Yugoslavia. Roses grow wild as far north as Norway and Alaska and as far south as Mexico and North Africa, but no wild roses have ever been found to grow below the equator.
The rose apparently originated in Central Asia about 60 to 70 million years ago, during the Eocene epoch, and spread over the entire Northern Hemisphere. Early civilizations, including the Chinese, the Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans, appreciated roses and grew them widely as long as five thousand years ago.
About 500 B.C. Confucius wrote of roses growing in the Imperial Gardens and noted that the library of the Chinese emperor contained hundreds of books about roses. It is said that the rose gardeners of the Han dynasty (207 B.C.-A.D. 220) were so obsessed with these flowers that their parks threatened to engulf land needed for producing food, and that the emperor ordered some rose gardens plowed under.
The oldest rose identified today is Rosa gallica, also known as the French rose, which once bloomed wild throughout central and southern Europe and western Asia, and still survives there. Although the exact origin of Rosa gallica is unknown, traces of it appear as early as the twelfth century B.C., when the Persians considered it a symbol of love.
Roses in the ancient world
Descending from Rosa gallica is Rosa damascena, the damask rose, whose well-known fragrance has been part of rose history since the rose first appeared in about 900 B.C. About 50 B.C. a North African variant called Rosa damascena semperflorens, the 'Autumn Damask', thrilled the Romans because it bloomed twice a year - a trait previously unknown to them The 'Autumn Damask', which has been traced back to at least the fifth century B.C., is believed to be a cross between Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata, the musk rose. Until European merchants discovered the tea and China roses in the Orient many centuries later, this rose would be the only repeat bloomer known to the Western world.
Another important early rose was rosa alba, the 'White Rose of York'. Made famous as the emblem of the House of York during the fifteenth-century Wars of the Roses, this five-petaled rose is actually far older, dating to before the second century A.D. It probably originated in the Caucasus and traveled west by way of Greece and Rome. Rosa alba and its relatives, known as albas, are believed to have descended from some combination of Rosa gallica, Rosa damascena, Rosa canina, and Rosa corymbifera.
The early Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans all grew and traded in roses, which they brought with them as they traveled and conquered. As a result, roses spread throughout the Middle East and elsewhere in the Mediterranean.
The Greek scientist and writer Theophrastus, cataloging roses known about 300 B.C., described their flowers as having anywhere from five to one hundred petals. His was the first known detailed botanical description of a rose. Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia around this time, grew roses in his garden and is credited for introducing cultivated roses into Europe. He may have had something to do with rose growing in Egypt, too.
In 1888 famous English archaeologist Sir Flinders Petrie, while excavating tombs in Upper Egypt, found the remains of rose garlands that had been used as a funeral wreath in the second century A.D. He identified the rose as Rosa x richardii, a cross of Rosa gallica and Rosa phoenicia known commonly as the 'Holy Rose of Abyssinia', or 'St. John's Rose'. The petals, though shriveled, had retained their pink color and, when soaked in water, were restored to a nearly lifelike state. Other researchers have found paintings of roses on the wall of the tomb of Thutmose IV, who died in the fourteenth century B.C. References to the rose have been deciphered in hieroglyphics.
In ancient Rome patricians tended rose gardens at their homes, and public rose gardens were a favorite place to pass a summer afternoon. Records show that there were two thousand public gardens in Rome before its fall in A.D. 476. The poet and satirist Horace complained about the shortsightedness of the Roman government for allowing rose gardens to be planted where the land should have been used for wheat fields and orchards.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, as Europeans struggled to survive the onslaught of armies and marauders, rose gardening became impossible for all but a few. Charlemagne (A.D. 742-814) grew roses on the palace grounds at Aix-Ia-Chapelle, but it was primarily the monks who kept roses alive, growing them and other plants for a variety of medicinal uses. Monasteries of the Benedictine order in particular became centers of botanical research.
As social conditions stabilized, roses began to reappear in private gardens. During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, soldiers returning from the Crusades in the Middle East brought back tales of extravagant rose gardens, as well as sample flowers. Travel increased everywhere, and traders, diplomats, and scholars began to exchange roses and other plants. Interest in the rose was rekindled.
Early herbalists give testimony to the burgeoning knowledge of roses. John Gerard, an English herbalist, wrote in his Herball in 1597 that 14 kinds of roses were known. By 1629, John Parkinson, the apothecary to James I, had reported 24 different roses in his herbal Paradisus. At the end of the 1700s, the English artist Mary Lawrance identified and illustrated some ninety different roses in a book titled "A Collection of Roses from Nature".
Roses in the new world
Across the Atlantic many separate strains of roses had arisen in the wilds of North America. Of some 200 rose species now known worldwide, 35 are indigenous to the United States, making the rose as much a native of North America as the bald eagle. These roses include Rosa virginiana, the first American species mentioned in European literature; Rosa carolina, the 'Pasture Rose'; Rosa setigera, the 'Prairie Rose'; Rosa californica; Rosa woodsii; and Rosa palustris, the 'Swamp Rose', named for the environment in which this rose grows best.
Captain John Smith wrote of the Indians of the James River Valley planting wild roses to beautify their villages, thus making roses one of the first North American native plants to be widely cultivated as an ornamental.
When William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, lived in Europe in the late 1600s, he observed that roses enjoyed high favor in gardens as well as in the arts and sciences. Returning to America in 1699, he brought 18 rosebushes with him. He later discussed their beauty and medicinal virtue in a "Book of Physic" for the medical care of Pennsylvania settlers.
One marvel Penn had undoubtedly beheld in Europe was Rosa centifolia, the cabbage rose. True to its botanical name, this rose has an astounding 100 petals, so densely arrayed that the flowers resemble small cabbages. Once thought to be ancient -perhaps the 100-petaled rose described by Pliny the Elder in the first century A.D.-the cabbage rose is now considered by many to be a product of late seventeenth-century Dutch rose growers. Others believe that it was imported from Asia in 1596. Whatever its history, the cabbage rose is probably a complex hybrid of many ancient roses, including the gallicas, damasks, and albas.
A famous sport (mutation) of the cabbage rose is Rosa centifolia muscosa, the moss rose, which appeared about 1700 and is still grown and used in hybridizing. This rose has tiny, highly fragrant, moss like hairs along its stems and flower buds.
Although European hybridizers were busy during this period, they based their introductions on a limited gene pool, which made novelty hard to achieve. Moreover, the laws of heredity were poorly understood-a handicap that was to persist until well after Gregor Mendel conducted his research in the mid-1800s. In addition, early breeders guarded their methods with paranoiac jealousy, worried that competitors would put them out of business.
Roses from the orient
A revolution in rose breeding and growing took place in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when increased trade with the Orient brought Rosa chinensis, the China rose, to the attention of Europeans. 'Old Blush', the first variety of China rose to reach the West, was introduced into Sweden in 1752 and into the rest of Europe by 1793. Rosa x odorata, the tea rose, followed in 1808 or 1809. Tea rose was so named because of the tea like scent of its foliage.
Although the Chinese had grown these and other roses for centuries, their impact in Europe was truly phenomenal. Their most remarkable quality - continual repeat blooming - was completely unknown in Europe at the time and made them an instant sensation. Unlike the repeat-blooming "Autumn Damask', which blooms briefly twice a year, continual repeat bloomers produce flowers over an extended period during the growing season. In addition to its flowering capabilities, the China rose possesses a foliage that is almost evergreen, and the tea rose a foliage that is resistant to mildew. European rose breeders were eager to marry these traits into existing rose lines. Indeed, the China and tea roses laid the genetic foundation for almost all modern roses. Unfortunately, they also passed on a lack of cold hardiness to many of their descendants.
The China rose had also been called the Bengal rose because it was imported to the West from Calcutta, the region's capital. In the eighteenth century a large botanical garden flourished there, containing roses brought from China by merchants of the British East India Company. In 1789 a British sea captain took flowers home to England. Beginning in 1793, more specimens were shipped from Calcutta to many parts of Europe by Dr. William Roxburgh, the director of the company.
In the British colonies in America, rose commerce was active during the eighteenth century. Robert Prince opened the first American nursery in Flushing, Long Island, in 1737, and started to import a mounting assortment of new plants. By 1746 he advertised 1,600 varieties of roses-no doubt one of the largest collections in the world at that time. Prince's records show that in 1791, Thomas Jefferson ordered two centifolias, a 'Common Moss', a 'Rosa Mundi', an unidentified yellow, a musk rose, and, quite interestingly, a China rose. Since China roses did not reach most of Europe until 1793, it is possible that the rose traveled directly from Asia, on a clipper ship that crossed the Pacific by way of Cape Horn.
The Portlands were a class of rose that came into being about 1800, probably derived from a cross of the "Autumn Damask' with the China rose and Rosa gallica. Named for the duchess of Portland, the Portlands were one of the first good garden hybrids to meld East and West, possessing the repeat-blooming ability of their China rose parent. Also called damask perpetuals, the Portlands were grown until the hybrid perpetual was introduced almost forty years later.
Josephine and Malmaison
No one did more to popularize the rose at the beginning of the 1800s than Empress Josephine, wife of Napoleon I. An ardent lover of the roses, she started a "rose renaissance" by attempting to grow every known variety in her garden at Malmaison, near Paris.
In the 16 years between 1798, when she first started the garden, and 1814, when she died a month before her fifty-first birthday, she collected 250 rose specimens. To support her hobby, Napoleon ordered his captains to bring home any new rose they found blooming on foreign shores. So widely esteemed was her garden that the English, who were at war with the French, allowed plants for Josephine to cross blockades and permitted her head gardener to travel freely across the Channel. The reputation of Josephine's garden spread across Europe, igniting an interest in rose growing and hybridizing that would eventually lead to the birth of modern roses.
Because of the prestigious gardens at Malmaison, France became a leading grower and exporter of roses. In 1815 some 2,000 varieties of roses were available from French growers. That figure jumped to 5,000 varieties in only 10 years. French growers also exported roses to New Orleans and cities up the Mississippi River before the Civil War. Southern gardeners found the tender China and tea roses especially suited to their warm climate.
The rise of the hybrid tea
The Bourbon rose, Rosa x borboniana, was brought to France in 1817 from the island of Réunion (then called Île de Bourbon) near Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. Its background is unknown, but it is probably a natural hybrid of Rosa chinensis and the "Autumn Damask', since both roses were grown as hedges on the island. The Bourbon rose quickly became one of the most popular roses of the early nineteenth century because of its recurrent bloom. Like the Portlands, it was one of the first to combine the best of the European and Oriental roses. The original Bourbon was bright pink; this rose is now lost, but among the many remaining hybrids of the Bourbon is one that was a primary source of red in today's roses.
Another product of a crossing of European and Oriental roses was the hybrid China class. These tall and somewhat unattractive plants did not repeat bloom well, and never became popular on their own. They were, however, among the ancestors of the hybrid perpetuals, polyanthas, floribundas, and hybrid teas.
An American contribution to the history of the nineteenth-century rose was the noisette rose, Rosa noisettiana, the first rose known to be hybridized in America. The noisette rose was a cross, between Rosa moschata, the musk rose, and Rosa chinensis, the China rose. It was hybridized in 1812 by a South Carolina rice grower named John Champneys, who called his creation 'Champneys' Pink Cluster'. But he lacked interest in marketing the rose, so he gave a cutting to his neighbor Philippe Noisette. Philippe, in turn, sent it to his brother Louis, a nurseryman in Paris. By crossing this low-growing rose with other, taller roses, Louis developed a tall new rose that he dubbed 'Blush Noisette'-uncharitably snubbing the original hybridizer.
In the mid-1800s Rosa rugosa, well known as the rose of the seashore, came to the Western world from Japan. This rose does not hybridize well, and therefore has not contributed much to the history of roses. For over a thousand years, however, it has been valued for its crinkled foliage, single flowers, and copious production of hips, which are an excellent source of vitamin C.
The creation of modern roses was well under way by 1837, when most of the Chinese roses had traveled to Europe. That year saw the introduction of the hybrid perpetual, a complex French hybrid whose ancestors included the Bourbon, damask, China, Portland, cabbage, tea, and noisette roses. The hybrid perpetual was extremely hardy; its flowers were large and fragrant. Early varieties of hybrid perpetuals were pink, but when they were crossed with Bourbon roses, the Bourbons' red coloring entered the line.
The hybrid perpetuals remained popular until the turn of the century, when they were eclipsed by the superior hybrid tea. Unfortunately, most of them have been lost. Of the more than three thousand varieties hybridized during this golden age of roses - from the time of Josephine's garden at Malmaison through the assimilation of roses from the Orient - only about fifty varieties can be purchased today.
The result of a cross between a hybrid perpetual and a tea rose, the hybrid tea had a more compact growing habit and more dependable ever blooming qualities than its hybrid perpetual parent. The first hybrid tea, 'La France', was introduced in 1867. The National Rose Society of Great Britain formally recognized the hybrid tea class in 1893. Since then it has been improved considerably and it remains the most popular rose today.
The creation of the hybrid tea marked the start of a new era in rose breeding. All classes of roses in existence before 1867 were deemed old garden roses, whereas all new classes were to be called modern roses.
In 1900, after 13 years of trying, French hybridizer Joseph Pernet-Ducher introduced 'Soleil d'Or', a cross between a red hybrid perpetual and 'Persian Yellow', Rosa foetida persiana, which had been brought from Persia to England by Sir Henry Willcock in 1837. This cross created a yellow color that was able to survive interbreeding. Pernet -Ducher's 'Rayon d'Or', a golden yellow; soon followed. Thanks to these introductions, a range of colors never seen before in modern roses came into being: gold, copper, salmon, and apricot. Pernet-Ducher soon became known as the Wizard of Lyons, the town where he did his work. For the first 30 years of their existence, these roses formed a separate group called the Pernetianas. Later, they were merged with the hybrid tea class.
Hybrid tea roses resisted cold weather but were not vigorous growers, having spindly roots. In the late nineteenth century, nursery workers learned that these roses could be made to grow better if they were grafted onto the roots of Rosa multiflora, a vigorous plant with nondescript flowers.
At the beginning of the 1900s, Danish rose breeder Svend Poulsen hybridized many polyanthas. The polyantha was a new class of rose developed in the late nineteenth century by French nurseryman Jean Sisley, who crossed Rosa multiflora and a dwarf China rose. Polyanthas were low-growing bushes smothered in clusters of small flowers that bloomed repeatedly all summer. In much of his work, Poulsen used the East Asian species Rosa wichuraiana, which lent winter hardiness to its progeny.
In the 1920s Poulsen crossed the polyantha with the hybrid tea to produce the first floribundas: the pink 'Else Poulsen' and the red 'Kirsten Poulsen'. As its name implies, the floribunda has an abundance of flowers, a legacy of its polyantha parent. From its hybrid tea parent, the floribunda inherited plant height and long cutting stems.
While the development of bush roses was unfolding, climbers were coming into being. Climbers have complex histories and lineages that are often difficult to trace. Many evolved from ramblers, the first of which was 'Crimson Rambler', an import from Japan in 1893. 'Crimson Rambler' was descended from Rosa wichuraiana and Rosa multiflora. Other climbing hybrids of Rosa wichuraiana are "American Pillar', 'Blaze', 'Dr. W. Van Fleet', 'Dorothy Perkins', and 'New Dawn'. The large Bourbon roses also influenced climbers, as did the tall noisettes.
Other climbers are sports of bush roses that produced long, pliable canes; still others are descendants of large shrub roses. In recent years many have evolved from Rosa kordesii, a tall, semi climbing shrub rose that resulted from a cross of Rosa rugosa and Rosa wichuraiana in 1952. The hybrid musks, which are large shrubs or small climbers, were created in the 1920s from crosses between noisettes and Rosa multiflora ramblers.
Reimer Kordes, the twentieth-century German hybridizer who created Rosa kordesii, did a great deal of breeding using Rosa spinosissima, a rose that had existed since the Middle Ages or before. He crossed it with hybrid teas to develop a fine group of modern shrub roses called kordesii shrubs, including 'Frülingsgold' and 'Frülingsmorgen'. These are winter hardy low-maintenance flowers, commonly found in public areas and along roadsides in Europe.
With the coming of World War II, the rose-hybridizing boom slowed down, especially in Europe, but resumed once the war ended. Despite the proliferation of forms and colors, one long-sought-after color range-pure orange to orange-red - was still lacking in modern roses. The floribunda 'Independence', introduced in 1951, was the first modern rose in this orange-red range. The key to its unique coloration was the pigment pelargonidin, which also gives geraniums their scarlet coloring. It was not until 1960, when the German hybridizing firm Rosen Tantau introduced 'Tropicana', that we had an orange-red hybrid tea.
In 1954 a new class of rose was created to accommodate the rose 'Queen Elizabeth'. Called grandiflora, this class resulted from crossing a hybrid tea with a floribunda. Its flowers resemble those of the hybrid tea, but they bloom in clusters like those of the floribunda.
Today there are more than thirty thousand varieties of roses of all classes (some eleven thousand of these are hybrid teas). However, many of them, especially the older varieties, are no longer sold; they survive, if at all, only in private gardens. Sorting out their backgrounds and histories is frequently a difficult task. Some roses are natural hybrids, making their parentage virtually impossible to determine. Others are commercial hybrids whose lineage has been either lost or deliberately obscured in order to deter piracy. However, this has not stopped enthusiasts from attempting to reconstruct it.
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This 100% Natural Jasmine Absolute Oil contains the essential oil Jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum) prediluted in a natural base of Grape Seed Oil. Grape Seed Oil is used because it is a light, natural oil with no noticeable odor that can be used on all skin types. Jasmine is one of the most revered of all fragrances, and has been used in the perfume industry for centuries.
Traditional use: Aphrodisiac, antidepressant, sedative
Exotic and sweet, jasmine is a highly sought after oil. Exorbitantly expensive in its pure form, it's not uncommon to find "cut" or synthetic versions on the market. These variants are beneficial as well as affordable. Jasmine's historic use goes back centuries. In ancient India, jasmine was (and still is) used for for ceremonial purposes. The Chinese used jasmine to cleanse the atmosphere that surrounded the sick. A good hostess also made sure to have jasmine on hand to give to inebriated guests to clear their heads.
Modern uses for jasmine include childbirth, depression, respiration, and fertility.
Mixes well with: Bergamot, clary sage, clove, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, lemon, lime, neroli, orange, palmarosa, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, tangerine, and ylang ylang.
Parts used: Flowers.
Extraction method: Solvent extraction of the flowers can produce both a concrete and an absolute. Jasmine essential oil is produced from the absolute via steam distillation.
Safety Information: Avoid during most of pregnancy; do not use until labor is well advanced.
Visit : Jasmine Oil, Rose Oil, Sandalwood Oil
The Rose, the Divine Flower of Love! India is a land redolent with aromatic plants. In each nook and corner of the country one finds various herbs, spices, woods, flowers, roots and grasses being grown for aromatic or medicinal purposes. Many of the plants that have a longer history in India also factor strongly into the cultural and religious lives of the country people. It is certain that this deep inner connection with the plants plays an important role in the emotional and spiritual well-being of the people and this in turn benefits their physical health. One of the flowers that has a relatively long history in the countries rich aromatic traditions is the Rose.
The rose or Gulab Attar of North India is mainly distilled from Rosa Damascena. Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan are the main areas where the Rosa Damascena is grown for distillation of both attar (bulk of the flowers) and Ruh. Now in the Kangra and Kullu Valleys there are a number of small distillation units set up for preparing the Ruh.
The process is fairly simple (at least in writing); the roses which are mainly harvested in the late April and May are placed in larger copper distilling vessels which are connected to the receiving vessel by a bamboo pipe that is wrapped with a special grass rope for insulation. The flowers sit in water which is heated and then the vapors pass over into the copper receiving vessel via the bamboo pipe. The receiving vessel contains sandalwood oil and the rose essence gets absorbed in the sandalwood over a period of 15-20 days with new flowers being distilled each day. The more in depth explanation of Gulab Attar production can be seen on the Fragrant Harvest Web Site.
Up until recently the majority of rose production has been for the production of attars (traditional Indian perfumes produced by the hydro-distillation of the flowers into sandalwood), garlands, and preparation of Gulkand (a special jam which is renowned for its cooling and digestive qualities) Small amounts of Ruh or Pure Essence of Rose have been prepared each year for many centuries but it has been a very rare item until quite recently.
Due to the fact that India uses a lot of rose essence in their indigenous fragrance industry there has been a concerted effort to produce it on a larger scale. It is being heavily promoted by government research institutions like Institute of Himalayan Bio-resource Technology which, I have visited a couple of times. They are engaged in both the cultivation of the plants and developing better and affordable distilling technology for production of the oil.
This beautiful Gulab Attar made with Rosa Damascena has graced our path with its simple and elegant flower, its beautifully, rich, fragrant and intoxicating aroma and often used as an aphrodisiac in ancient perfume aromatics and anointing oils.
Source: Indian Rose Attar, Attar
Monday, July 21, 2008
Sandalwood (Santalum album) has been part of Indian culture and
heritage for thousands of years, and was one of the first items traded with other
countries. The heartwood yields fragrant oil, which is used mainly in the
perfume industry but also has medicinal properties. The wood is used for carving
and manufacturing incense. Generally S. album is found in the dry deciduous
forests of Deccan Plateau, mostly in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Sandalwood oil is mainly used in the perfume industry. The oil
is an excellent base and fixative for other high grade per-
fumes. Most top grade perfumes have sandalwood oil as their
base. In itself it is an excellent, mild, long-lasting, and sweet
perfume, yet the industry finds that it can blend very well with
other perfumes and does not impart its fragrance when used as
a base. It can also fix the better perfumes, which are volatile, for
longer hours. Several chemicals have been tried in this role, yet
sandalwood oil has retained its place of pride. From perfumery
to joss sticks, there are several hundred products that use
sandalwood oil. It is also used in the soap industry.
Please click here for typical GLC report of Sandalwood oil.
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Wednesday, July 16, 2008
The rose, long called the "king of flowers," is perhaps the most revered flower in the world. For centuries its beauty has been celebrated in art and literature and symbolized in religion, romance, and even politics. It is very helpful for heart problems and also beneficial for normal circulation of blood.
It is very helpful for heart problems and also beneficial for normal circulation of blood.
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